Thursday, September 29, 2016

An Interview with Dr. Maggie Louie

By Zack Griggy, San Marin HS

           Cancer is a widespread problem. The American Cancer Society estimates that this year over 1.6 million Americans will be diagnosed with cancer and another half a million are expected to die from it. Dr. Maggie Louie is an experienced researcher in the fields of cancer. Currently, she runs an active cancer research center that studies breast cancer.

To find out more about Dr. Louie's work and her research, we conducted an interview:

1. How did you first become interested in studying cancer?

I did a medical internship the summer of my junior year in high school and I got to shadow two surgeons.  One of the surgeries that I observed was a 40-year cancer patient undergo double mastectomy.  At the age of 16, just thinking about how breast cancer can take away an organ that partly defines someone's women-hood had a significant effect on me.  At that moment, I became quite interested in cancer.

2. What studies have you conducted in the past? How have they led you to where you are today?

My lab has conducted many studies.  One of the studies that we did was to study how exposure to chronic low-levels of cadmium impacts on progression of the disease.  Our results show that even at low levels, cadmium promotes more aggressive cancer characteristics and alters the gene expression patterns of the cancer cells.

3. How is tamoxifen used to treat breast cancer? How does a tumor develop resistance to it?

Tamoxifen is an estrogen receptor antagonist and blocks estrogen from activating the receptor and promoting breast cancer growth.

 4. How do metals such as cadmium activate estrogen receptors? How might these metals influence the development of a tumor?

Cadmium is a metalloestrogen and is known to bind and activate the estrogen receptor.  It has also been shown to promote breast cancer growth While we know that heavy metals like cadmium promote cancer growth, scientists are still working to understand how it works.

5. What are the best parts of your job? What are the worst?

The best parts of my job are working with students and using research to inspire them to be interested in science.  The less attractive side of my job is that research is very repetitive and redundant, and sometimes you don't see an impact for many years.

6. And finally, do you have any advice for students who aspire to study cancer?

 Students should definitely consider studying cancer as this disease will touch everyone in some way, directly or indirectly, and they will be making a difference.  

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Marin Science Seminar Internships Still Available


Marin Science Seminar still has two high school student internship spaces available. Interns must be able to attend science seminars on select Wednesday evenings at Terra Linda High School in San Rafael. Interns arrive at 7 pm to set up, assist with the seminar, and can leave when the seminar is cleaned up by 8:45 pm. Specialties are also available for students interested in writing, photography, videography, and social media.

Start your application online today at this link!

See the calendar here: http://www.marinscienceseminar.com/calendar.html

More information about MSS internships can be found on the website at this link:
http://www.marinscienceseminar.com/interns.html

 Join us and learn!




Myths of Astronomy Wed. 9/21 at Marin Science Seminar at Terra Linda HS

This Wednesday, September 21st  Marin Science Seminar will present "Myths of Astronomy" with Thomas Targett of Sonoma State University's Astronomy and Physics Department. We have extra credit forms at all sessions. There will be astro-swag and door prizes for student attendees. Join us and learn!

September 21: "Myths of Astronomy" with Thomas Targett PhD of Sonoma State University
Check it out on Facebook

Much of what we think we know about space often comes from film and television, but Hollywood's job is more often to entertain than to educate. In this presentation, Prof. Thomas Targett of Sonoma State university will sort fact from fiction, taking a tour through the worlds of Star Trek, Star Wars, and much more.

Thomas Targett obtained his undergraduate and masters degrees from Cardiff University, in Wales U.K., with a
research focus on 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen. He obtained his PhD from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, in the fields of sub-millimeter galaxy evolution and the coupled growth of galaxies and black holes. In 2007 Dr. Targett began a research postdoc at Caltech, followed by similar appointments at the University of Birmingham (UK), the University of British Colombia, and the University of Edinburgh. He is currently an Associate Professor of Astronomy and Physics at Sonoma State University.

 Find out more here:
http://www.marinscienceseminar.com/speakers/ttargett.html 


Saturday, April 16, 2016

Space Travel: How Does Outer Space Affect Your Body?

By Rachael Metzger, MSS Intern

          Have you ever wanted to become an astronaut? Travel to space? Have you dreamed about finding extraterrestrial life or communing with aliens? If your answer is yes, I can assure you that you’re not alone. Countless children dream of becoming astronauts, and many movies and TV shows have revolved around exploring space. The exploration of the unknown is a wonderful idea on paper, but it is a lot more complicated than jumping into a spaceship and traveling to Mars, even if we have the technology to do so. Space travel can take a huge toll on a human’s body if certain precautions are not taken; any error could result in death.
        The human body was not made to travel in space, nor has it had time to adapt to such an environment. When launched into space, some effects of that changed environment on the body take longer than others to be felt. Immediately one might experience nausea and/ or vomiting. This is caused by the sensitivity of the inner ear which affects balance and orientation. Thankfully, in a couple of days the inner ear will have adapted to the new environment and the nausea will dissipate (BBC “future”).
        In about two days, bodily fluids will rise to the upper body and face, causing a bloated appearance, and tissues will swell in the head, making a person feel like they are hanging upside down. This makes the body think that it is over-hydrated and it forces the liquid out through urine, causing astronauts to have 20% less fluids in their body while in space.  
Bodily Fluids in Space 
        Spaceflight can also quickly affect eyesight, creating anomalies such as optic nerve swelling, retinal changes in the shape of the eye, and other negative effects to the eye 
        In a week’s time muscle and bone loss can start to occur, and this sometimes includes heart muscle because not as much effort is needed to pump blood in anti-gravity. The lack of gravity can have such an extreme effect on bones that they can become very brittle; this is called “disuse osteoporosis” (The Dallas Morning News “Preparing Bodies for Liftoff”). Even astronauts' skin will get thinner, making them more prone to cuts and infections which take longer to heal in space. Sleep deprivation is another problem among astronauts. Because of the change in the light-dark cycle, it can be a challenge for the body to adapt to the new sleeping schedule (NASA).  
The Effects of Space Travel on the Body

       After a while aboard a spacecraft, astronauts may find their immune system becoming less effective, making them more susceptible to diseases. Cosmic radiation is another huge issue facing astronauts. Astronauts seeing flashes of light in their brains is proof of the cosmic radiation. Astronauts' brains could suffer brain damage from cosmic rays over long periods in deep space, affecting their mental performance (BBC "future").
        All these dangers could be fatal and might make space travel seem impossible, but there are many precautions being taken to allow us to explore our universe in a safer way. Nausea and vomiting can not always be avoided, but anti-nausea pills and a strong stomach help towards inner ear balance in space. To battle losing 20% of bodily fluids, astronauts must stay well hydrated while their bodies adjust to the new climate. The rising of bodily fluids to the upper body may be uncomfortable but has not  been linked to long lasting negative effects on astronauts, and it subsides after a couple of days. Bone and muscle loss is one of the largest problems facing astronauts. On the International Space Station, astronauts stay fit with a machine for weight lifting, a treadmill adapted for microgravity, and a Cyclergometer, which is a modified cycler for microgravity (NASA). Astronauts have a very strict sleeping schedule to try and achieve the maximum hours of sleep possible. Astronauts have to be very careful of keeping waste and bacteria contained that could contaminate their lowered immune systems. For long expeditions such as to Mars, radiation  protection is being experimented with in the forms of water, waste, plastic, and many other substances.
         Being an astronaut involves more than just knowing about your area of study, it requires knowledge of how the human body operates. If your dream is to become an astronaut, consider the risks, know about your body, but don’t be scared off. Medical and technological advances continue to make space flight safer and easier on the human body, presenting an opportunity to explore space to a further extent.


Sources:
1. http://www.nasa.gov/missions/science/f_workout.html
2. http://www.space.com/29309-space-radiation-danger-mars-missions.html
3. http://nsbri.org/the-body-in-space/
4. http://interactives.dallasnews.com/2015/spacebody/
5. http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20140506-space-trips-bad-for-your-health
6. http://www.nasa.gov/content/study-compiles-data-on-problem-of-sleep-deprivation-in-astronauts/